Enhancing Regular Monitoring of Food-Contact Surface Hygiene with Rapid Microbial Kits


  • Mazni Saad Faculty of Business, Universiti Selangor, 40000 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Toh Poh See Faculty of Hotel and Tourism Management, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 42300 Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Mohd Faiz Foong Abdullah Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Norazmir Md. Nor Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 42300 Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia




Food safety, food-hygiene practices, microbial kits, food handlers


To ensure that food is always healthy and safe, food business operators utilize a simple and practical method of identifying and verifying microbes. This study looks at the practicality of an inexpensive and user-friendly microbial kit that evaluates the cleanliness level of 72 samples of food-contact surfaces (FCS) of food service establishments in two states of Malaysia. It detected 70% coliform contamination which suggests that food service operators may need to improve the cleanliness of FCS. It can be concluded that the microbial kit used is a practical self-check approach for determining the hygiene level of any food service operation and should be made mandatory

Keywords: Food safety; food-hygiene practices; microbial kits; food handlers 

eISSN 2398-4295 © 2018. The Authors. Published for AMER ABRA cE-Bs by e-International Publishing House, Ltd., UK. This is an open-access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). Peer–review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers), ABRA (Association of Behavioural Researchers on Asians) and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia. 



Arvanitoyannis, I. S., & Varzakas, T. H. (2009). Application of ISO 22000 and comparison with HACCP on industrial processing of common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) - Part 1. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 44, 58-78.

Atlas, R. M., Bej, A. K., Mahbubani, M. H., all of Louisville, K., Richard Miller, P., Ind., Steffan, R. J., Dak, N. (1994). 5,298,392. United States Patent.

Belgian Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain. (2010). Measuring food safety and comparing self checking systems, from http://www.favv-afsca.be/selfcheckingsystems/

Beuchat, L. R. (2002). Ecological factors influencing survival and growth of human pathogens on raw fruits and vegetables. Microbes and Infection, 4, 413-423.

Beuchat, L. R., & Ryu, J. H. (1997). Produce handling and processing practices. Emerging Infectious Disease, 3, 439-465.

Casey, C., & Alach, P. (2004). 'Just a temp?' Women, temporary employment and lifestyle. Work, employment and society, 18(3), 459-480.

Cosby, C. M., Costello, C. A., Morris, W. C., Haughton, B., Devereaux, M. J., Harte, F., & Davidson, P. M. (2008). Microbiological analysis of food contact surfaces in child care centers. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 74(22), 6918-6922.

Cunningham, A. E., Rajagopal, R., Lauer, J., & Allwood, P. (2011). Assessment of hygienic quality of surfaces in retail food service establishments based on microbial counts and real-time detection of ATP. Journal of Food Protection, 74(4), 686-690.

Dorothy, A. G., & Philip, R. A. (1998). Technology of Bottled Water. USA: Sheffield Academic Press.

Enoch, D. A., Mlangeni, D. A., Ekundayo, J., Aliyu, M., Sismey, A. W., Aliyu, S. H., & karas, A. (2013). Gram negative bacteraemia-are they preventable and what will E.coli surveillance add? Journal of Infection Prevention, 14(2), 55-59.

Havelaar, A. H., Nauta, M. J., & Jansen, J. T. (2004). Fine-tuning Food Safety Objectives and risk assessment. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 93(1), 11-29. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2003.09.012

Lammerding, A. M., & Fazil, A. (2000). Hazard identification and exposure assessment for microbial food safety risk assessment. International Journal Food Microbiology, 58(3), 147-157.

Martinon, A., Cronin, U. P., Quealy, J., Stapleton, A., & Wilkinson, M. G. (2012). Swab sample preparation and viable real-time PCR methodologies for the recovery of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus or Listeria monocytogenes from artificially contaminated food processing surfaces. Food Control, 24, 86-94.

Mazni, S., Toh, P. S., & Mohamed Azam, M. A. (2013, 18-21 March). Food handler's hygiene practices among government institutional training center in Northern region. Paper presented at the ASEAN Conference on Environment-Behaviour Studies (AcE-Bs2013Hanoi), Hanoi Architectural University, Vietnam.

Menkovska, M. (2011). Regulations and organs in the field of food and feed safety in republic of Macedonia. Macedonian Journal of Animal Science, 1(2), 355-360.

Michaels, B., Keller, C., Blevins, M., Paoli, G., Ruthman, T., Todd, E., & Griffith, C. J. (2004). Prevention of food worker transmission of foodborne pathogens: risk assessment and evaluation of effective hygiene intervention strategies. Food Service Technology, 4, 31-49.

Mulec, J., Kristufek, V., & Chronakova, A. (2012). Comparative microbial sampling from eutrophic caves in Slovenia and Slovakia using RIDA COUNT test kits. International Journal of Speleology, 41(1), 8.

Nkere, C. K., Ibe, N. I., & Iroegbu, C. U. (2011). Bacteriological quality of foods and water sold by vendors and in restaurants in Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria: A comparative study of three microbiological methods. Journal of Health, Population, & Nutrition, 29(6), 560-566.

Park, M.-K., & Oh, J.-H. (2012). Rapid detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on turnip greens using a modified gold biosensor combined with light microscopic. Journal of Food Science, 77(2), 127-134.

Park, M.-K., Weerakoon, K. A., Oh, J.-H., & Chin, B. A. (2013). The analytical comparison of phage-based magnetoelastic biosensor with TaqMan-based quantitative PCR method to detect Salmonella Typhimurium on cantolaoupes. Food Control, 33, 330-336.

Payne-Palacio, J., & Theis, M. (2012). Foodservice Management Principles and Practices (12th. Ed. ed.): Prentice Hall.

Rodriguez, M., Valero, A., Posada-Izquierdo, G. D., Carrasco, E., & Zurera, G. (2011). Evaluation of food handler practices and mirobiological status of ready-to-eat foods in long-term care faciliteis in Andalusia region of Spain. Journal of Food Protection, 74(9), 1504-1512.

Salo, S., Ehavald, H., Raaska, L., Vokk, R., & Wirtanen, G. (2006). Microbial surveys in Estonian dairies. LWT, 39, 460-471.

Trotha, R., Konig, T. H. W., & Konig, B. (2001). Rapid ribosequencing - an effective diagnostic tool for detecting microbial infection. Infection, 29, 12-16.

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. (2013, 28 April 2013). FoodSafety.gov: Your Gateway to Federal Food Safety Information Retrieved 28 April, 2013, from www.foodsafety.gov/poisoning/effects/index.html

Willis, C., Elviss, N., Aird, H., Fenelon, D., & Mclauchlin, J. (2012). Evaluation of hygiene practices in catering premises at large-scale events in the UK: Identifying risks for the Olympics 2012. Public Health, 126, 646-656.

Wilson, K., Blitchington, R., Frothingham, R., & Wilson, J. (1991). Phylogeny of the Whipple's-disease-associated bacterium. Lancet, 338, 474-475.




How to Cite

Saad, M., See, T. P., Abdullah, M. F. F., & Md. Nor, N. (2018). Enhancing Regular Monitoring of Food-Contact Surface Hygiene with Rapid Microbial Kits. Asian Journal of Behavioural Studies, 3(11), 75–83. https://doi.org/10.21834/ajbes.v3i11.103