Sustainability of Cultural Heritage in World Heritage Site, Melaka
Cultural heritage is constructed from the intrinsic relationship between three fundamentals: society; tangible cultural heritage (TCH); and intangible cultural heritage (ICH). To sustain, cultural heritage relies on the social behaviour of society. Thus, reflecting fragility of heritage. Hence, this paper attempts to discourse the society’s behaviour towards ICH. Exploratory case study was employed by adapting five social behaviour related-criterions required by UNESCO. The data was analysed using two techniques: (1) simple statistical; and (2) thematic. The results indicate that the status of ICH is threatened due to the weak viability level and minimal safeguarding effort by the ‘society’.
2398-4295 © 2016. The Authors. Published for AMER ABRA by e-International Publishing House, Ltd., UK.. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). Peer–review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers), ABRA (Association of Behavioural Researchers on Asians) and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.
Keywords: social behaviour; intangible cultural heritage; world heritage site; threatened
Bakar, A. A., Mariana, M. O., Syahriah, B., & Mansor, I. (2014). Analysis on Community Involvment Level in Intangible Cultural Heritage: Malacca cultural community. Procedia-Social Behavioral Sciences , 286-297.
Bouchenaki, M. (2003). The interdependency of the tangible and intangible cultural heritage. Zimbabwe: ICOMOS.
CAPAM. (2010). Overview of Case Study Models and Methodology. Ottawa: Commonwelth Association for Public Administration and Management.
Congdon, J. D., & Dunham, A. E. (1999). Defining the Begining: the importance of research design. In K. L. Eckert, K. A. Bjorndal, F. A. Grobois, & F. Donelly, Research and management techniques for the conservation of sea turtles (pp. 83-87). Washington: IUCN/SSC Marine Turtle Specialist Group Publication.
ICOMOS. (2008). Evaluations of Cultural Poperties . Canada : UNESCO.
Johnson, R. B., Onwuegbuzie, A. J., & Turner, L. A. (2007). Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research . Journal of Mixed Methods Reseach , 112-133.
Munjeri, D. (2004). Tangible and Intangible Heriatge: from difference to covergence. Museum International , 13-20.
Othman, R. N., & Hamzah, A. (2013). Interdependency of Cultural Heritage Assetes in Old Quater, Melaka Heritage City. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences , 577-588.
Powell, E. T., & Steele, S. (n.d.). Collecting evalutaion Data: Direct Observation. Retrieved May 14, 2014, from http://learningstore.uwex.edu/assets/pdfs/g3658-5.pdf
Remenyi, D. (2011). Field methods for academic research - interviews, focus group and questionnaires. united Kingdom : Ridgeway Press.
Simon, M. K., & Goes, J. (n.d.). Scope, limitations and delimitations. Retrieved January 13, 2013, from www.dissertationrecipes.com
Szolnoki, G., & Hoffman, D. (2013). Online, Face - to - face and telephone surveys : Comparing different sampling methods in wine consumer research. Wine Economy and policy 2 , 57-66.
UNESCO. (2009). List of Intangible in Need of Urgent Safeguarding. Canada: UNESCO.