To Walk or Not to Walk
Keywords:Walkability, sustainable transport, perceptions, pedestrian
Walkability is the basis of a sustainable city. Walking is the socially equitable mode most accessible to the masses. However, the advent of transportation technology has caused the desertion of the pedestrian space. Consequently, the phenomenon created a degradation of the pedestrian environment. The aim of the paper is to examine the characteristics that could promote walking. This paper combines survey questionnaire and walkability audit to gauge perception of the urban walking environment. Findings indicate that the proximity of destinations, good weather condition, safety and well-designed pedestrian facilities can significantly contribute to better perceptions of the walking environment.
Keywords: Walkability; sustainable transport; perceptions; pedestrian
eISSN 2398-4295 © 2018. The Authors. Published for AMER ABRA cE-Bs by e-International Publishing House, Ltd., UK. This is an open-access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). Peer–review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers), ABRA (Association of Behavioural Researchers on Asians) and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.
Appleyard, B. S. (2003). Planning safe routes to school. How will my child get to and from school? Planning, 69(5), 34.
Barter, P.A. (2004). Transport, urban structure and lock-in in the Kuala Lumpur Metropolitan Area. International Development Planning Review, 26(1), 1-24.
Clark, A. F., Scott, D. M. & Yiannakoulias, N. (2013). Examining the relationship between active travel, weather, and the built environment: A multilevel approach using a GPS-enhanced dataset. Transportation.
Campos, M.B., Chiaraida, A., Smith, A., Stonor, T. & Takamatsu, S. (2003). Towards a 'walkability index'. Proceedings of the European Transport Conference. Online 24th June 2013. http://trid.trb.org/view.aspx?id=771383.
Cubukcu, E. (2013). Walking for Sustainable Living, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 85, 33 – 42.
Doyle, S., Kelly-Schwartz, A., Schlossberg, M.& Stockard, J. (2006). Active Community Environments and Health: The Relationship of Walkable and Safe Communities to Individual Health. Journal of the American Planning Association, 72(1), 19-31.
Gebel, K. Bauman, A. Sugiyama, T. & Owen, N. (2011). Mismatch between perceived and objectively assessed neighborhood walkability attributes: Prospective relationships with walking and weight gain. Health and Place, 17(2), 519–524.
Grignaffini, S., Cappellanti, S. & Cefalo, A. (2008). Visualizing sustainability in urban conditions. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, 1, 253-262.
Hashim, N. (2004). Urban Development and Transport Planning in Malaysia – Present Practice. Paper presented at Air Pollution Control for Malaysian Cities Seminar, 17-18 February 2004, Hyatt Regency, Kuantan.
Hosseini, S.B., Maleki, S.N. & Azari, A.K. (2012). The Influences of Access Improvements in Pedestrian Street Use, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 35, 645 – 651.
Hung, W. T, Manandhar, A. & Ranasinghege, S A, (2010). A Walkability Survey in Hong Kong. TRANSED 2010: 12th International Conference on Mobility and Transport for Elderly and Disabled Persons, 1-4 June, 2010.
Leslie, E. Saelens, Frank, L., Owen, N. Bauman, A. Coffee, N. & Hugo, G. (2005). Residents’ perceptions of walkability attributes in objectively different neighbourhoods: a pilot study. Health and Place, 11(3), 227–236.
Litman, T. (2004). Economic Value of Walkability. World Transport Policy and Practice, 10(1), 5-14.
Manaugh, K. & El-Geneidy, A. (2011). Validating walkability indices: How do different households respond to the walkability of their neighborhood? Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 16(4), 309–315.
Parks, J. R. and Schofer J.L. (2006). Characterizing neighborhood pedestrian environments with secondary data. Transportation Research Part D, 11, 250–263.
Setyowati, E., Harani, A.R. & Falah, Y.N. (2013). The Application of Pedestrian Ways Design Concepts as an Implementation of Sustainable Urban Open Spaces, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 85, 345 – 355.