Influence of Urban Landscapes to Microclimatic Variances in a Tropical City


  • Sharifah Khalizah Syed Othman Thani
  • Nik Hanita Nik Mohamad
  • Sharifah Mastura Syed Abdullah



The outdoor spaces of hot-humid tropical cities are exposed directly to the high intensity of solar radiation. The increased heat gain contributes to the thermal discomfort in an urban environment. This study investigates the variability of outdoor air temperature produced on the different urban landscape morphology in Putrajaya. Results revealed that the temperature distribution is strongly influenced by the urban landscape morphology where significant temperature differences are observed at various urban areas. The findings could contribute toward a better understanding on the interrelationship between urban landscape morphology and its influence on the microclimatic atmosphere.

Keywords: Urban landscape morphology; outdoor temperature; thermal variation; tropical city

2398-4295 © 2017 The Authors. Published for AMER ABRA by e-International Publishing House, Ltd., UK. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license ( Peer–review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers), ABRA (Association of Behavioural Researchers on Asians) and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, UniversitiTeknologi MARA, Malaysia.


Emmanuel, R., Johansson, E., (2006). Influence of urban morphology and sea breeze on hot humid microclimate: the case of Colombo, Sri Lanka. Climate Research, 30, 189 – 200.

Gartland, L., (2008). Heat Islands: Understanding and mitigating heat in urban areas. Earthscan, London, Sterling VA, (Chapter 2).

Giridharan, R., Lau, S.S.Y., Ganesan, S., Givoni, B., (2007). Urban design factors influencing heat island intensity in high-rise high-density environments of Hong Kong. Journal of Building and Environment, 42, 3669 – 3684.

Johansson, E., (2006). Influence of urban geometry on outdoor thermal comfort in a hot dry climate: A study in Fez, Morocco. Building and Environment, 41, 1326 – 1338.

Malaysian Meteorological Department (2012). Northeast Moonsoon Report (November 2011), Kuala Lumpur Moonsoon Activity Centre. Retrieved on 21 September 2012 from

Oke, T.R., (2006). Initial Guidance to Obtain Representative Meteorological Observations at Urban Sites, Instruments and Observing Method, Report No. 81, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva.

Rabiatul, A.N., Sabarinah, S.A., Azni, Z.A., (31 October – 2 November 2012). Adaptive outdoor thermal comfort at an urban park for the benefit of the present and future community. Procedia-Social and Behavioural Sciences, 68, 865 – 878.

Shaharuddin, A. (2012). Mikroiklim Bandar: Perkembangan dan impak pulau haba bandar di Malaysia (In Malay). Penerbit Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

Shaharuddin, A., Noorazuan, M.H., Yaakob, M.J., Kadaruddin, A., Muhamad, F.M. (2011). The effects of different land uses on the temperature distribution of a humid tropical urban centre. World Applied Sciences Journal, 13, 63 – 68.

Sharifah Khalizah, S.O.T., Nik Hanita, N.M., Sabrina, I., (31 October – 2 November 2012). Modification of urban temperature in hot-humid climate through landscape design approach: A review. Procedia-Social and Behavioural Sciences, 68, 439 – 450.

Shashua-Bar, L., Hoffman, M.E., (2000). Vegetation as a climatic component in the design of an urban street: An empirical model for predicting the cooling effect of urban green areas with trees. Enery and Buildings, 31, 221 – 235.

Wong, N.H., Yu, C. (2005). Study of green areas and urban heat island in a tropical city. Habitat International, 29, 547 – 558.




How to Cite

Syed Othman Thani, S. K., Nik Mohamad, N. H., & Syed Abdullah, S. M. (2017). Influence of Urban Landscapes to Microclimatic Variances in a Tropical City. Asian Journal of Behavioural Studies, 2(7), 31–41.