Measuring Park Usage in Malaysian Greens
Keywords:Park Usage, Green Open Spaces, Malaysian, Measurement, CFA.
This study validates the park usage scales for green open spaces in Malaysia. The measures on park usage were developed using three usage scales, which are activities, passive activity and active activity. Samples of 414 daily park users were analyzed, results showed good-fit indices on each construct confirming the theory behind each and every item used in the study. Despite several reductions on the items, the Confirmatory Factor Analysis(CFA) on park usage yield good internal consistencies making it suitable for its use in the research design focusing in measuring the usage of Malaysian park users.
Keywords: Park Usage; Green Open Spaces; Malaysian; Measurement; CFA.
eISSN 2398-4295 © 2018. The Authors. Published for AMER ABRA cE-Bs by e-International Publishing House, Ltd., UK. This is an open-access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). Peer–review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers), ABRA (Association of Behavioural Researchers on Asians) and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.
Abdul Malek, N., Mariapan, M., & Shariff, M. K. M. (2012). The Making of a Quality Neighborhood Park: A Path Model Approach. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 49, 202-214.
Arnberger, A. (2006). Recreation use of urban forest: An inter-area comparison. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 4, 135-144.
Byrne, B. M. (2001). Structural Equation Modeling with AMOS: Basic Concepts, Applications, and Programming. New York: Taylor & Francis Group & Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.
Francis, J., Lisa J.Wood, Mathew Knuiman, Billie Giles-Corti. (2012). Quality or quantity? Exploring the relationship between Public Open Space attributes and mental health in Perth, Western Australia.Social Science & Medicine, 74, 1570-1577.
Gobster, P. H. (1998). Urban parks as green walls or green magnets? Interracial relations in neighbourhood boundary parks.Landscape and Urban Planning(41), 43-55.
Gupta, K., Kumar, P., S.K.Pathan, &K.P.Sharma.(2012). Urban Neighborhood Green Index - A measure of green spaces in urban areas.Landscape and Urban Planning, 105, 325-335.
Kaczynski A.T., Potwarka, L.R. &Saelens, B.E., (2008), Association of park size, distance, and features with physical activity in neighbourhoodparks.American Journal of Public Health, 98, 1451-6.
Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and practice of Structural Equation Modeling (second ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.
Lindsey, G. (1999). Use of urban greenways: insights from Indianapolis. Landscape and Urban Planning, 45 145-157.
Marzhuki, M. A., Karim, H. A., &Latfi, M. F. (2012).Evaluating the Shah Alam City Council Policy and Guidelines on the Hierarchy of Neighborhood Open Space.Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 36, 456-465.
T.W. Zhang and P.H. Gobster, (1998) Leisure Preferences and Open Space Needs in an Urban Chinese-American Community, Journal of architectural and planning research, 15(4), pp. 338-355.